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Thermostat

THERMOSTAT- is a component which senses the temperature of a physical system and performs actions so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint.

A thermostat is a system that monitors and regulates a heating or cooling system. It can be used to set the desired temperature at which it keeps the environment either heated or cooled.

Thermostats are used in any device or system that heats or cools to a setpoint temperature, examples include building heating, central heating, air conditioners, HVAC systems, water heaters, as well as kitchen equipment including ovens and refrigerators.

Newer digital electronic thermostats (Programmable thermostat), have no moving parts to measure temperature and instead rely on thermistors or other semiconductor devices such as a resistance thermometer. Digital thermostats use either a relay or a semiconductor device such as triac to act as a switch to control the HVAC unit. HVAC systems with the ability to modulate their output can be combined with thermostats that have a built-in PID controller to achieve smoother operation.

Most digital thermostats in common residential or commercial use in North America are programmable thermostats, which will typically provide a 30% energy savings if left with their default programs; adjustments to these defaults may increase or reduce energy savings.

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